The Exodus of the Hebrews, Moses and the Pharaohs
The Date of the Exodus
Moses, who led the Israelites out of bondage in the land of Egypt
Colored portrait in likeness of the Oahspe Bible image
Oahspe's account of the Migration of the Faithists of Egypt at the time of the Arc of Bon can be placed in context with surviving historical accounts and recent archaeological discoveries to reveal corresponding details that affirm Oahspe's account of the Exodus of the Hebrews.
Biblical scholars have long searched for evidence of Moses and the Israelites in Egypt and the miracles that accompanied the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt. Not least of these are the identity of Moses' Egyptian family and the Exodus Pharaoh; evidence of the plagues prior to the Exodus; the Exodus route and the location of the Red Sea Crossing and more. In this twelve part series about the Exodus, we will cover these issues and more, but we begin with correcting a few misconceptions arising from inaccuracy in the Ezra bible, it being the source for most scholars for dating the Exodus.
In Oahspe we have a firm time and date, being the dawn of the Arc of Bon at c. 1550 b.c.e.. This date provides a timeframe of reference by which other accounts can be measured. This is the time when Moses began his mission resulting in the Exodus of the Israelite Faithists from Egypt some 4 years later. This places the date when the Israelite Faithists left Egypt at c. 1546 b.c.e.
Oahspe, Book of the Arc of Bon, 27/18.2-3
the name of the place they reached when they crossed over (the sea)
was Shakelmarath; and they camped there many days.
From the time Moses began to put on foot the migration of Israel until he reached
Shakelmarath was four years two hundred and seven days.....||
Although scholars disagree on the date of the Exodus, those who recognize that the expulsion of the Hyksos in the reign of Ahmose I is synonymous with the Exodus of the Hebrews find that Egyptologists confidently assert this date to be circa 1550 b.c.e., which also concurs with the dates of the ancient Jewish Historian Josephus:
||...the 1st century AD Jewish Historian, Flavius Josephus, using Manetho's 3rd century B.C.E. History of Egypt to establish the antiquity of his race, identified the Hyksos expulsion with the Exodus. But Josephus vehemently attempted to REFUTE Manetho's notion that the Exodus was much later, under a Pharaoh called Ramesses.....|| retrieved 30 Sept, 07.
Biblical scholars dating the Exodus according to the Ezra bible, calculate the date of the Exodus by counting the number of years before the foundation of Solomon's temple. This brings them to 1446 b.c.e., which is 100 years short of the date revealed in Oahspe and the Exodus of the Hyksos. 1446 b.c.e. is also disputed by various Biblical scholars: |1|
||.....In "The Antiquity of the Jews" (1830, 166; Book 8.3.1) Josephus says the exodus occurred 592 years before the Temple of Solomon was built which is about 960 BC. So the exodus, according to Josephus, was about 1552 BC.....Josephus says the exodus was 612 years before the temple. This difference is probably due to the counting of the years of the judges. This places the exodus at about the same time as the expulsion of the Hyksos.....I Kings 6:1 states that the exodus was 480 years before the Temple of Solomon was built, yet Josephus clearly states 592 years in his book The Antiquity of the Jews. The difference seems to be in the way the rule of the Judges was calculated. Josephus seems to include the oppressions as well as the judges, whereas the writer of Kings excludes the the rule of oppressors, as was customary at this time (Jackson and Lake 1979, 151). This amounts to about 111 years difference.....|| retrieved 20 Feb, 08.
The Date of the Migration of the Faithists, aka the Exodus of the Hebrews occurred in 1546 b.c.e. as given in Oahspe. This date is corroborated over and over again as being accurate in various supporting details which correspond between Oahspe and historical and archaeological contexts which are addressed in later parts of this series of The Exodus.
While anti-Exodus scholars point to the inaccuracies of the Ezra Bible as evidence that it never happened, there are other ancient references referring to the Red Sea Crossing by the Hebrews existing before the Ezra Bible was assembled more than one thousand years after the event. Ancient Hebrew, pre-Chaldean pictorial script carved onto rock faces in various sites around the Sinai desert were found in the 19th century by archaeologists and explorers, indicating independent accounts of the crossing of the Red Sea by the Hebrews. The script in which these writings are rendered have been dated far older than the account written in the Ezra bible. According to Oahspe the Ezra bible was compiled and established by the Jewish scholar, Ezra in Jerusalem, completed in 2344 before kosmon (BK), or by common dating, 495 b.c.e.
Sinaitic Inscriptions in Wadee El-Mukattab, Sinai
Photographed in 1857 by Francis Frith (1822-1898)
BOOK TITLE: Sinai, Palestine, The Nile. ca. 1863
The following is a translation of the inscription by A. P. Stanley in his book, Sinai and Palestine, London: John Murray, 1905, p. 70 :
"The wind blowing, the sea dividing into parts,
they pass over"
"The Hebrews flee through the sea; the sea is turned into dry land."
"The waters permitted and dismissed to flow,
burst rushing unawares upon the astonished men,
congregated from quarters banded together to slay treacherously
being lifted up with pride."
"The leader divideth asunder the sea, its waves
The people enter, and pass through the midst of the waters."
"Moses causeth the people to haste like a
fleet-winged she-ostrich crying aloud;
the cloud shining bright,
a mighty army propelled into the Red sea is gathered into one;
they go jumping and skipping.
Journeying through the open channel,
taking flight from the face of the enemy.
The surge of the sea is divided."
"The people flee, the tribes descend into the deep.
The people enter the waters.
The people enter and penetrate through the midst.
The people are filled with stupor and perturbation.
Jehovah is the keeper and companion."
"Their enemies weep for the dead, the virgins are wailing.
The sea flowing down overwhelmed them.
The waters were let loose to flow again."
The people depart fugitive.
A mighty army is submerged in the deep sea,
the only way of escape for the congregated people."
|1| Biblical Archaeology:The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers; Dr. Stephen C. Meyers; 2003; chapter 1, Ancient Writers.
All Oahspe references are from the Standard Edition Oahspe of 2007