The Egyptian Sojourn of the Hebrews
A mural from a tomb in Bani Hassan depicting Asiatics with families and flocks.
By the time of the Exodus, the Hebrews whose collective tribal name was "Israel", had been living as servants and slaves in Egypt under Egyptian laws for more than three hundred years. The wealth and prestige of the Egyptian culture and society had been built upon and depended on the slave labor of the peaceful and docile Israelites. According to Oahspe, for three hundred years prior to 1550 b.c.e., (the end of the cycle of Cpenta-armij and the beginning of the cycle of Bon), the northern and eastern kingdoms of Heleste and Par'si'e (a large expanse from the Mediterranean north, south and eastward to Persia) were driven to war by the false Gods Baal and Ashtaroth. And so, by 1550 b.c.e., there were millions of people from the east who had migrated into Egypt, among these were Israelite Faithists escaping the wars caused by Baal and Ashtaroth's struggles to gain dominion and territory.
Some biblical scholars incorrectly attribute the Hyskos rule to the Israelites, but the peace-seeking Israelites who had continued to live in the ways established by Abraham, shunned the rule of kings preferring their traditional system of elders and fathers organized and connected as families and tribes. They sought not to conquer or dominant peoples or territory, but rather they arrived in Egypt as refugees from war torn regions to the East and North East. They even acquiesced to servitude under the dominion of the Egyptians where there was at least peace and order, rather than to remain amongst the dangers and upheavals of war in the North and Eastern Regions:
Oahspe, Book of the Arc of Bon; 27/14.20.
|| For more than three hundred years, the God Baal and the Goddess Ashtaroth had driven the foreign kingdoms to war; and as a consequence of these wars the Faithists had fled into Egupt, and even accepted servitude rather than be slain elsewhere. ||
The presence of large numbers of Asiatics who relocated to the more peaceful regions of Egypt in the three hundred and more years before the close of the Middle Kingdom is also reflected in the art and culture of the Middle Kingdom. Egyptian art of that period depicted Asiatics in peaceful travel with family and domestic goods, or domestic scenes depicting Asiatics in service to the wealthy Egyptians. During the reign of Amenemhet 3, near the end of the Middle Kingdom period, many Asiatic workers, including laborers, soldiers and craftsmen, came to Egypt.
In context with the Oahspe account, it can be seen that the military experience of the eastern warriors under Baal and Ashtaroth's inspiration with their horse drawn chariots and advanced weaponry, later adopted by the Egyptians, was not derived from the Hebrews, but from warrior Asiatics under the influence of the warrior false God and Goddess, Baal and Ashtaroth. The Eastern Delta regions of Egypt were a major point of interface with migrating Asiatics, where trade flourished and foreign technology was absorbed by the Egyptians. The power base of the Middle Kingdom was close to the Eastern Delta regions at Itjtawy (south of Memphis at the upper end of the delta). This strategic position provided the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs with advantages of tribute, trade and Asian innovative technology far better than the more isolated southern areas of Egypt.
According to conventional Egyptology, the rise of the Hyksos was supposed to have culminated in a century of Hyksos rule prior to 1550 b.c.e. The supposed fragmentation of the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt into separate dynasties is believed to have been as a result of the growing numbers of Asiatics (Hyksos) gaining dominance in the delta regions. However, numerous scholars dispute this as a misrepresentation of the subordinate positions that Egyptians of the Middle Kingdom allowed Asiatics to take in provincial regions within Egyptian Hegemony. Again, this is reflected in the power structures of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom:
|| Nomarchs were the semi-feudal rulers of Ancient Egyptian provinces. Serving as provincial governors, they each held authority over one of the 42 nomes of Egypt into which the country was divided.....The position of the nomarch was at times hereditary, while at others nomarchs were appointed by the pharaoh. The balance of power between nomarchs and the central government varied from one pharaoh's rule to the next. Generally, when the national government was stronger, nomarchs were appointed governors. But when the central government was weaker at times of foreign invasion or civil war, for example, rulers of individual nomes would assert themselves and establish hereditary lines of succession.....|| (retrieved 4 Oct, 07)
|| In the Middle Kingdom the Ancient Egyptians developed a new government where the pharaoh did not have total power over Egypt. The officials got their way. However, this did not mean that their civilization was weak or that the pharaohs did not have any power. In fact, strong pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had complete authority.....The Middle Kingdom was formed after a series of wars between the rulers of Upper Egypt (the South) and Lower Egypt (the North). The rulers of Upper Egypt won, and they reunified the country about 2000 BC, with the capital first at Thebes in the south, and then at a new city just south of Memphis. The Pharaohs of this period are not as powerful as before. They show themselves as taking care of their people, instead of as god-kings as in the Old Kingdom. They are the shepherds of the people now. The nomarchs (local officials) are powerful.|| Various sources of education material for schools.
The interface of the migrating Asiatics with Egyptians was controlled through Egyptian laws which were designed to enslave those who would not adopt Egyptian ways, including the prevailing Osirian religion, this in turn also affected many Faithists to adopt Egyptian ways, as per the Oahspe account:
Book of the Arc of Bon; 27/14.11-19.
|| Among the Sun laws were the following, namely: The God of Gods (i.e., Osiris) decrees:
"Whoever does not bow down to me, shall not partake of me. Behold, mine is the sign of the circle! My enemies shall not receive great learning.
They shall not hold sun places (be employers), but be servants only, all their lives. And these signs shall reveal them:
If they do not worship me, but the Great Spirit;
If they deny that the Creator is in the image of a man;
If they circumcise; and will not serve as soldiers;
Then their possessions are forfeited already; nor shall they possess houses in their own names; nor send their children to the schools; for they shall be servants and the servants of servants forever. "
Under the Eguptian laws, to worship the Great Spirit, Jehovih, was accounted a sufficient crime of idolatry, meaning the Israelites were not even admitted to the courts to be tried for an offense, but fell under the jurisdiction of the master for whom they labored, and his judgments were beyond appeal.
Now at the time of the birth of Moses, there were thirteen million inhabitants in Egupt; and of these, four million were Faithists (Israelites), more or less. For among the Israelites not all were of full faith, but many, to shirk the rigors of the Sun laws, professed to be worshippers of God (Osiris), and they would also enlist as soldiers, and otherwise connive in the ways of men, for sake of favors.
For which reason, the Sun King (Pharaoh) feared the time might come when the Israelites would revolt against the Sun laws, or become soldiers and confederate with foreign kingdoms for the overthrow of the Eguptian dynasty.||
This concurs with the historical evidence that not all the Hebrews who arrived in Egypt remained servants, but many sought advancement within Egyptian culture and society (as can be seen in the story of Joseph in the Old Testament). Moreover, not all Asiatics were Hebrew, Hyksos also translates as "Shepherd Kings". There is therefore an understandable blurring of historical definitions between Hebrew, Faithist / Israelite and Hyksos (which in this case refers to warrior Asiatics).
The upper regions (southern) of Egypt were firmly kept in submission to the Lower Regions (northern) in the Middle Kingdom up to 250 years prior to 1550 b.c.e. This situation among mortals was reflected in concurrent events and power struggles in the lower heavens, which in turn affected mortals and their power struggles. The strength of the Osiris religion reflected Osiris' power in the lower heavens before the fragmentation of his heavenly dominions which began about 250 years (1800 b.c.e.) before the end of the cycle of Cpenta-armij (1550 b.c.e.).
Around 1800 b.c.e. Osiris' kingdom became divided and several of his generals rebelled and took fragments for themselves. One interesting detail that confirms the name of one of these rebel generals is the name taken by the rulers of the 17th Dynasty. Tao I and Tao II both carry the name of Teo-Judas, who is named in Oahspe as one of Osiris' generals who seceded from Osiris kingdom, taking over the lower heavens above South Arabin'ya (South Egypt).
Upon fragmentation of the lower heavens and the loss of power and control by Osiris, the southern region of Egypt, under the dominion of Osiris ex-general, Teos-Judas in the lower heaven, probably began its own dynasty at least 100 years before the end of the cycle of Cpenta-armij. Amenemhat II reigned about the same time that Osiris' Kingdoms began to fragment, being ca 1700 to 1665 b.c.e. (which is our amended date obtained by discounting the 230 years of the 2nd Intermediate Period). The inherited status granted to the nomarchs by Amenemhat II reflects the reduction of central power and regional divisions of power. Nevertheless, the nomarchs did remained subject to the Pharaoh of Egypt as nome states, until sometime during the reign of Amenemhat III, when the nomarchs were disinherited.
Oahspe reveals that Nu-ghan (the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus) was under the inspiration of Baal. This indicats that by the time Ahmose I, as a prince / nomarch of the southern nome region of Egypt centered in Thebes, succeeded to the Pharaonic throne of Egypt, Teos-Judas and others of Osiris' rebellious generals had been either replaced or co-opted by Baal. It was Baal, the most experienced of Osiris' underlings, who usurped the remnants of Osiris Kingdom after Osiris and his co-horts lost their kingdoms near the end of the Cpenta-armij cycle.
Conventional Egyptology mistakenly thinks that a unification took place between the southern nome region of Upper Egypt with the Egyptian throne in Lower Egypt perpetrated by Ahmose I by the so called "Expulsion of the Hyksos". But it was simply a matter of succession to the existing throne of Egypt, since Amenemhat's daughter was not eligible and his adopted son, Moses, was neither acceptable to the Egyptian aristocracy, nor was Moses himself desiring to inherit the throne of Egypt. The change in royal family from Amenemhet's line to Ahmose's line also called for beginning a new dynasty.
Part 5 of this series continues to highlight evidence that shows that Egypt at the time of the Exodus was the end of the Middle Kingdom and also the last of the 12th dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
All Oahspe references are from the Standard Edition Oahspe of 2007