The Exodus of the Hebrews, Moses and the Pharaohs
The Co-Existence of Egyptian and Asiatic Religions
Religious differences between Egyptians of the Osirian cult and Asiatics who worshipped Baal and Ashtaroth were not issues of conflict, since they shared common deities. The long dominion of Osiris in alliance with Baal and Ashtaroth for hundreds of years before the latter part of the cycle of Cpenta Armij (which ended in 1550 b.c.e.) is reflected in the earthly co-existence of these deities in both the Egyptian and Asiatic religion and culture.
The various references below which highlight the co-existent harmony of Asiatic and Egyptian religion, show that the relationship of any subsidiary rulers to the Egyptians (and particularly to the Pharaoh) during the last hundred years before the New Kingdom was not one of domination, but rather the reverse. Religious differences had often been accommodated under alliances of deities and had long been practiced between Egyptians and Asiatics (except for worshippers of the Great Spirit who did not worship deities in their various forms). Even when Ahmose I made a major change in the Egyptian religion by replacing the cult of Osiris with Amun-Re as supreme deity there was no significant conflict of religion since both the Egyptians of the Osiris cult and the majority of Asiatics (who were not Faithists in the Great Spirit, EOIh), also worshiped Re:
||...Their [Hyksos] chosen main state god was Set, probably because they saw in him one of their own Asiatic gods rather than the god playing the same part as he had done in the cult of Osiris. Since the Hyksos rulers also worshipped the old royal god Re, it seems they did not force any foreign religious beliefs upon the Egyptians....|| (retrieved 28 Sept, 07)
||....[Amun] is actually mentioned
in the pyramid text from the Old Kingdom (5th Dynasty, Unas - line 558),
which show him to be a primeval deity and a symbol of creative force. [His relatively modern transformation is first found in the 11th Dynasty, but his rise to
to supreme Egyptian God only came about in Egypt's New Kingdom].....outside Thebes, Amun's identity became first subsumed into
Ra (Ra-Herakhty), who still remained an identifiable figure in the Osiris cult, but ultimately, became
merely an aspect of Horus.
.......[Amun] functioned early on as a less prominent god at Thebes, where he eventually flourished. The Nubians, however, believed that he originated at Gebel Barkal, located in the modern north of the Sudan. In the middle of the 16th Dynasty, with the expulsion of the Hyksos rulers of Egypt, Amun's growth was accelerated due to the vindication of both Egyptian power and Amun-Re as a protector of both the Egyptian state and the Monarchy.....|| (retrieved 5 Sept, 07)
|| In form, most commonly, the god's names were simply linked, creating synchronized gods such as Atum-Khepri, Re-Horakhty, and Amun-Re. This process could also bring together Egyptian and foreign gods. Anat-Hathor was an Asiatic-Egyptian god, while Arensnuphis-Shu was the combination of Meroitic [Nubian] and Egyptian deities.|| The Syncretism of Egyptian Gods; Jefferson Monet (2003) (retrieved 28 Sept, 07)
|| Though the kings of the 15th dynasty ruled over the country, the sources suggest that the 16th dynasty ruled as local subordinate authorities in the regional centers of the countryside all over Egypt in the meantime. This authority held more power than a simple mayor. The political construction reminded more to an early feudal society than an absolute monarchy.
The Hyksos fully assimilated to the local cultural life. They tolerated the Egyptian religion. Surprisingly the most important religious cult was the one of Seth, who was the god of chaos, infertility, destruction, the deity of the desert and wild storms for the Egyptians. Though he is not fully evil (read more about him in our "Gods" section), by his mythical role - he is the assassin and the self-elected successor of Osiris - he is the opponent of the pharaoh, who is the representation of Osiris. This probably must have been intentional ideological confrontation against the pharaohs who were considered to be the manifestation of Horus in person and the traditional enemies for Seth. This opposition is proven by the name "Apophis" preferred among Hyksos kings which is another trace of the Seth-cult (Apophis is the celestial serpent who tries to prevent the bark of Ra from [proceeding on to] the Western horizon but Seth defeats it night after night).
The circumstances around the re-conquest of the power and beating off the Hyksos are not less unclear than the [fictitious] invasion that led to the foreign domination.|| (retrieved 26 Sept, 07)
|| The period of their [Hyksos] rule was a time of peace and
prosperity for Egypt. They respected the native religions, maintained ancient
Egyptian as the official language of the government, and allowed many Egyptians
to serve in the high levels of the administration of the state. They taught the
Egyptians new military techniques and introduced the use of the horse and
The Hyksos were unable to quell the feelings of Egyptian nationalism. They held the southern lands in check with an alliance with the Nubian kingdom of Cush. Despite this, the southern Egyptian city of Thebes finally began a war of independence that culminated with the expulsion of the Hyksos by Ahmose I in 1567 BC.
No hostility seems to have been between the two parts until the last 20 years after a century of relatively peace....|| (retrieved 26 Nov, 07)
|| Of all the events that took place in the time of the Asiatic chieftains, the most important was one that did not occur: There was no war of consequence in Egypt throughout the rule of the Semitic chieftains!
This singular fact has been misunderstood, or deliberately distorted, for it is said that during the time of Hyksos rule the power and influence of Egypt declined.|| Egypt and the Semites; Samuel Kurinsky 1994 (retrieved 29 Sept, 07)
|The find of two seals of Nebiriraw I (16th Dynasty) at Lisht, well in Hyksos territory, is quite intriguing, for it could indicate a temporary relaxation in the otherwise tense relationships between the two houses that ruled over parts of Egypt.|| (retrieved 28 Sept, 07)
The various sources above confirm that there was no significant overt discord in the relationship between the so called Hyksos of Lower Egypt and southern Egyptians. The archaeological evidence of official seals belonging to southern rulers found in the Delta regions confirms the shared authority among the various nomarchs in these parts. The offical seals of the Pharaoh being required to authorize and approve matters of state, accords with Oahspe in that regard and further proves the subsidiary position of local governors to the Pharaoh:
Oahspe, Bk of the Arc of Bon; 27/17.6.
|| And whoso goes here or there, save by the sign of the signet of my [Pharaoh's] seal, shall surely be put to death.||
The relationship of subordinate rulers to the Pharaoh at the time of Moses, the late Middle Kingdom, is further described in Oahspe:
Oahspe, Bk of the Arc of Bon, 27/14.10-12.
|| The Sun is the central power; its accompanying planets are satellites. In like manner the king of Egupt was the Sun King and his sub-kings (governors) were satellites. Osiris, the highest angel in heaven, was the Sun God, that is, God of Gods; for all other Gods were his satellites. He revealed certain laws to mortals, and these were Sun laws....
Among the Sun laws were the following, to wit: The god of Gods, (i.e. Osiris) decrees: Whose bows not down to me, shall not partake of me. Behold, mine is the sign of the circle! My enemies shall not receive great learning.
They shall not hold sun places, but be as servants only all their lives. And these signs shall discover them....||
It can be understood from the Oahspe reference above that Egyptian law acknowledged those who accepted Osiris as supreme God, even allowing such persons to have ruling positions subordinate to the Pharaoh. This helps to explain the absorption into the ruling classes of Egypt, such Asiatics as accepted Egyptian Religion. Egypt had long been a nexus between Nubia in the south and Asia in the North East, the criteria of what was Egyptian had more to do with culture and religion than a particular ethnic group, since Egypt's existence sprung from, and continued to develop, via a mixture of peoples and cultures.
Foreign subsidiary rulers to Egypt are further referred to in Oahspe in relation to Moses who was the Pharaoh's ambassador for 12 years, prior to 1550 b.c.e. Contrary to being subservient to foreign rule, Egyptian hegemony was dominant even though there was the constant fear of subordinate regions attempting to overthrow the Egyptian yoke.
Oahspe, Bk of the Arc of Bon; 27/15.13, 14.
||...Moses was a master of many languages, and was acquainted with kings and queens and governors, far and near. And he espoused the cause of the king, whose dominions held seven kingdoms beyond Egypt as tributary kingdoms, which paid taxes to Pharaoh.
And so Pharaoh made Moses ambassador to the foreign kingdoms, in which capacity he served twelve years. But because of the prejudice against him, for being of Israelite blood, the court of Pharaoh importuned the king for his removal, and Moses was so removed from office under the king.||
Religion, along with Art, reflects the culture and society. It is evident in the shared deities of the Asiatics and Egyptians who worshipped these deities, that there was an accepted co-existence between them.
The contentious relationship between Hyksos and Egyptian as stressed in the supposed 2nd Intermediate period is found to be non evident. Even in the New Kingdom, the emerging Greek religion worships Zeus, who shares a synchronicity with Amun-Re of the Egyptians, indicating a direct connection between the common deities of both cultures. This is also in accord with what Oahspe reveals about the lower heaven and earthly dominions of Baal in the later period of the New Kingdom during the cycle of Lika.
A depiction of Isis and Nephthys proclaiming their brother Re and Osiris occupy the same heavenly abode.
All Oahspe references are from the Standard Edition Oahspe of 2007